The Essential Guide to Requirements Management and Traceability
- 1. Requirements Management
- 1 What is Requirements Management?
- 2 Why do you need Requirements Management?
- 3 Four Fundamentals of Requirements Management
- 4 Adopting an Agile Approach to Requirements Management
- 5 Conquering the 5 Biggest Challenges of Requirements Management
- 6 Three Reasons You Need a Requirements Management Solution
- 2. Writing Requirements
- 1 Functional requirements examples and templates
- 2 Product requirements document template and examples
- 3 How to write system requirement specification (SRS) documents
- 4 Adopting the EARS Notation to Improve Requirements Engineering
- 5 Jama Connect Advisor™
- 6 Frequently Asked Questions about the EARS Notation and Jama Connect Requirements Advisor
- 7 How to Write an Effective Product Requirements Document
- 8 Functional vs. Non-Functional Requirements
- 9 What Are Non-Functional Requirements and How Do They Impact Product Development?
- 10 Characteristics of Effective Software Requirements and Software Requirements Specifications (SRS)
- 11 8 Do’s and Don’ts for Writing Requirements
- 3. Requirements Gathering and Management Processes
- 4. Requirements Traceability
- 1 What is Traceability?
- 2 What is Requirements Traceability and Why Does It Matter for Product Teams?
- 3 How to Create and Use a Requirements Traceability Matrix
- 4 Live Traceability vs. After-the-Fact Traceability
- 5 How to Overcome Organizational Barriers to Live Requirements Traceability
- 6 Requirements Traceability, What Are You Missing?
- 7 Four Best Practices for Requirements Traceability
- 8 Requirements Traceability: Links in the Chain
- 9 What Are the Benefits of End-to-End Traceability During Product Development?
- 5. Requirements Management Tools and Software
- 6. Requirements Validation and Verification
- 7. Meeting Regulatory Compliance and Industry Standards
- 1 Understanding ISO Standards
- 2 What is ISO 13485? Your Comprehensive Guide to Compliant Medical Device Manufacturing
- 3 A Guide to Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASIL)
- 4 Compliance Management
- 5 What is FMEA? Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
- 6 What’s a Design History File, and How Are DHFs Used by Product Teams?
- 8. Project Management
- 9. Measuring Requirements
- 10. Systems Engineering
Frequently Asked Questions about the EARS Notation and Jama Connect Requirements Advisor
The Easy Approach to Requirements Syntax, also known as the EARS notation, uses a few keywords and a simple underlying ruleset to gently constrain natural language (NL) requirements. EARS requirements have a few clauses that are always in the same order, following temporal logic. This means that the requirements mirror common usage of English whilst optimizing clarity and precision.
In this chapter, we’ll present a list of frequently asked questions about the EARS notation and Jama Connect® Requirements Advisor.
1: Why is it important to write good requirements?
Well-written requirements are critical for the development of any successful system. Requirements drive the design, development, and user experience of the system. Well-written requirements can improve productivity and quality. A good requirement states something that is necessary, verifiable, and attainable.
2: Is my requirement data secure?
Yes. Requirements Advisor Beta uses the same portfolio of security solutions as the production release of Jama Connect.
- Your requirements statements stay within the Jama Connect Cloud with the same proven protection of Jama Connect.
3: What are the benefits of Requirements Advisor Beta for Jama Connect?
- Improve the quality of your requirements statements quickly and efficiently using natural language processing.
- Reduce the risk of late-stage errors.
- Assists development teams in standardizing your process for requirement authoring, saving time, and enhancing accuracy.
RELATED ARTICLE: All Systems Go: INCOSE Principals
4: When will Requirements Advisor be available in Jama Connect?
- Beta: A limited customer beta is planned to begin calendar Q2 2022
- Release: Initial product release is planned for H2 2022
Jama Software® reserves the right to continue development and consider potential, future Jama Connect integration options. Users can contribute to future capabilities by using the beta and providing feedback to Jama Software. Jama Software retains the rights to Jama Software Requirements Advisor and all derivative works.
5: How are requirements statements evaluated?
Advisor applies industry best-known methods from both INCOSE* and EARS*. Please review the details that follow on both below.
6: What is INCOSE?
International Council for Systems Engineering (INCOSE) is a not-for-profit membership organization founded in 1990 with the following goals:
- Develop and disseminate the interdisciplinary principles and practices that enable the realization of successful systems.
- Promote international collaboration in systems engineering practice, education, and research.
- Assure the establishment of competitive, scale-able professional standards in the practice of systems engineering.
- Encourage governmental and industrial support for research and educational programs that will improve the systems engineering process and its practice.
- Learn more about INCOSE
7: Why use INCOSE rules?
INCOSE reflects the principles and processes of system engineering. The INCOSE Guide for Writing Requirements focuses on writing requirements in the context of systems engineering. It emphasizes the need to consider the context of the system of interest when writing requirements. Considering the environment in which the developed system is located is an integral part of the system approach.
8: What is the INCOSE Guide for Writing Requirements?
INCOSE created and published the first Guide for Writing Requirements in July 2009. Since then, the document has undergone several reprints, which incorporated the suggestions and comments of various practitioners. The latest version of the guide, (V3) at the time of this writing, was published in June 2019.
9: What is EARS?
Alistair Mavin, “Mav,” the originator of the Easy Approach to Requirements Syntax (EARS) describes it as follows:
EARS is a mechanism to gently constrain written requirements. The EARS patterns provide structured guidance that enables authors to write high-quality requirements.
Mav and his colleagues at Rolls-Royce PLC developed EARS while analyzing the airworthiness regulations for a jet engine’s control system. The regulations contained high-level objectives, a mixture of implicit and explicit requirements at different levels, lists, guidelines, and supporting information.
In the process of extracting and simplifying the requirements, Mav noticed that the requirements all followed a similar structure. He found that requirements were easiest to read when the clauses always appeared in the same order. These patterns were refined and evolved to create EARS.
There is a set syntax (structure), with an underlying ruleset. A small number of keywords are used to denote the different clauses of an EARS requirement. The clauses are always in the same order, following chronological logic. The syntax and the keywords closely match common usage of English and are therefore intuitive.
The notation was first published in 2009 and has been adopted by many organizations across the world.
10: Why use EARS notation?
System requirements are usually written in unconstrained natural language (NL), which is inherently imprecise. Often, requirements authors are not trained in how to write requirements. During system development, requirements problems spread to lower levels. This creates unnecessary volatility and risk, impacting program schedule and cost.
EARS reduces or even eliminates common problems found in natural language requirements. It is especially effective for requirements authors who must write requirements in English, but whose first language is not English. EARS has proven popular with practitioners because it is lightweight, there is little training overhead, no specialist tool is necessary, and the resulting requirements are easy to read.
RELATED ARTICLE: How to Write an Effective Product Requirements Document
11: Who is using EARS?
EARS is used worldwide by large and small organizations in different domains. These include blue-chip companies such as Airbus, Bosch, Dyson, Honeywell, Intel, NASA, Rolls-Royce, and Siemens.
The notation is taught at universities around the world including in France, Sweden, UK, and USA.
12: What are EARS patterns?
Following are six fundamental EARS patterns:
- Ubiquitous requirements
- State-driven requirements
- Event-driven requirements
- Option feature requirements
- Unwanted behavior requirements
In This Webinar, We Discuss Adopting EARS Notation to Improve Requirements Engineering
The Easy Approach to Requirements Syntax (EARS) uses a few keywords and a simple underlying ruleset to gently constrain natural language (NL) requirements. EARS requirements have a few clauses that are always in the same order, following temporal logic. This means that the requirements mirror common usage of English whilst optimizing clarity and precision.
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